For example, the eleventh-century Hammersmith plaque is included in the catalogue for The Golden Age of Anglo-Saxon Art not The Making of England , and the caption for fig. Archaeological and documentary evidence for workshops, tools and working processes is also assessed, and up-to-date technical information on materials and techniques is juxtaposed with new practical research to throw light on manufacturing and decorative processes, and, more widely, to give a fresh idea of the position of the goldsmith in his society. The third chapter in this section considers goldsmithing in the context of the changing economy of Anglo-Saxon England. Additional caveats are that a few minor mistakes appear in the dating of jewelry from the earlier period. Archaeological excavations have uncovered increasing amounts of evidence for tools and workshop debris.
Many pieces of Anglo-Saxon jewelry were cast, and this process has left traces in the form of molds or mold fragments, crucibles, and small ingot molds. . The photographs, which are better reproduced in color than in black and white, are adequate, although more details of works would have been helpful. The Mucking molds are firmly dated to the sixth century not the sixth or seventh centuries, 70 , while saucer brooches were made in the late fifth and sixth centuries not fifth to early eighth centuries, 77. The book starts by discussing the various types of evidence available.
The last three to four decades have seen tremendous advances in the study of Anglo-Saxon metalwork. Dodwell by gathering together many references to smiths and their work in visual, epigraphic, and documentary sources. The bibliography is comprehensive, although given the scope of the book, there are inevitably omissions. For instance, I doubt that reeded strips were manufactured by a draw-swage, the method favored in the book, because when the reeding is unfinished, as it is on the back of some suspension loops on seventh-century pendants in the British Museum, the individual grooves and ridges can be seen to be different lengths—something unlikely to have happened if the strips were drawn. Other advances have been made in the laboratory, where the latest scientific techniques have provided information about the precise constituents of alloys and inlays as well as evidence for particular manufacturing processes.
They have also produced a large number of new finds, some of superb quality, most recently at Prittlewell, Essex discovered after this book was published. The book concludes with two useful appendices, one on the vocabulary of metalworking in Old English, the other a select catalogue of objects referred to in the text. Paardekooper Leiden, the Netherlands: Vereniging voor Archeologische Experimenten en Educatie, 1999 , 15—24. In recent years, the corpus of Anglo-Saxon jewelry has also been increased by the activities of metal detectorists. Excavations have also uncovered various tools that may have been used by the Anglo-Saxon goldsmith. More information is provided by archaeological evidence of processes and surviving tools used for exceptionally fine work. They were associated with the rise of the powerful royal and noble elite, in wics or prototowns , in great estates, and in the craft centers of later, fully developed towns.
It should also be consulted as a first step by anyone with a serious interest in Anglo-Saxon metalwork, particularly from the point of view of manufacturing techniques or documentary sources. Some works are well known, particularly the magnificent gold and garnet regalia from Sutton Hoo, but this represents only a fraction even of the surviving work, and muc Throughout the Anglo-Saxon period, goldsmiths produced work of a high standard in both design and craftsmanship, both for personal adornment, and to embellish bookbindings, reliquaries, vessels and weapons. Some works are well known, particularly the magnificent gold and garnet regalia from Sutton Hoo, but this represents only a fraction even of the surviving work, and much more has been lost. The second chapter looks at the historical evidence for goldsmiths in chronicles, wills and charters, laws, place-names, and inscriptions. As befitting authors from Manchester, Part 2 continues the work of C.
It does a superb job of reviewing the types of tools known from that period as well as pointing out which have no record. Some works are well known, particularly the magnificent gold and garnet regalia from Sutton Hoo, but this represents only a fraction even of the surviving work, and much more has been lost. There has been a pressing need for a new summary of the latest research. It has indepth coverage of techniques as we can determine them from the extant pieces. The following spring to mind: a study of black rivets on two Anglo-Saxon strap-ends previously thought to be niello but that have been identified as patination by the technique known as shakudo in Japan; one on touchstones; and one discussing the possibility that the lost-wax technique may have been used in conjunction with two-piece molds. Throughout the Anglo-Saxon period, goldsmiths produced work of a high standard in both design and craftsmanship, both for personal adornment, and to embellish bookbindings, reliquaries, vessels and weapons.
All this work has resulted in numerous publications on Anglo-Saxon jewelry, mostly located in specialist reports. The discussion in this part is conveniently divided into three chapters. The first considers the representation of smiths in Anglo-Saxon literature and art. The broader European background of many elements could have been stressed more than it is. Among the topics discussed in this first chapter are various treatments of the legend of Weland the smith; references to the smith in secular poetry, colloquies, glossaries, and grammars; and illustrations of smiths in tenth- and eleventh-century manuscripts. It also discusses the role of preliminary sketches, the use of geometry, and the influence of construction methods and techniques on design. Eluère Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France: Société des Amis du Musée et du Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 1993 , 93—100.
The illustrations include very useful drawings some derived from published sources. Finally, there is 10 pages of vocabulary of Saxon, Latin and modern English words related to the craft. Archaeologists badly need advice from practitioners when interpreting evidence of this type, and one strength of the book is that Pinder is a working silversmith. As one would expect, goldsmiths were generally found in centers of wealth and power. The legal codes, however, offer very little help on the question of their status.
Study of the objects themselves can identify fabrication techniques, such as the formation of sheet metal, rods, and wire, as well as joining techniques such as soldering and riveting. The Art of the Anglo-Saxon Goldsmith is written in a pleasant, accessible style and is well structured for easy reference. It is the most thorough account to date of Anglo-Saxon attitudes to smiths, their works, and their working practices. If you are interested in one of the most beautiful crafts of the Saxon period I cannot recommend this book high enough. The study, which successfully combines specialised technical analysis with social history, is complemented by extracts from sources and numerous illustrations of tools, moulds and crucibles as well as the works of art themselves, including buckles, plates, bowls, crosses, brooches, altars and the Alfred Jewel. It starts with a review of the archaeological evidence for goldsmithing. First, it points out that, especially earlier in the period, a goldsmith probably worked in many metals and media.